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Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)

 
We Who Watch
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Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
What are viral hemorrhagic fevers?

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses. In general, the term "viral hemorrhagic fever" is used to describe a severe multisystem syndrome (multisystem in that multiple organ systems in the body are affected). Characteristically, the overall vascular system is damaged, and the body's ability to regulate itself is impaired. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage (bleeding); however, the bleeding is itself rarely life-threatening. While some types of hemorrhagic fever viruses can cause relatively mild illnesses, many of these viruses cause severe, life-threatening disease.

The Special Pathogens Branch (SPB) primarily works with hemorrhagic fever viruses that are classified as biosafety level four (BSL-4) pathogens. A list of these viruses appears in the SPB disease information index. The Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, also in the National Center for Infectious Diseases, works with the non-BSL-4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever.

How are hemorrhagic fever viruses grouped?

VHFs are caused by viruses of four distinct families: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. Each of these families share a number of features:

They are all RNA viruses, and all are covered, or enveloped, in a fatty (lipid) coating.
Their survival is dependent on an animal or insect host, called the natural reservoir.
The viruses are geographically restricted to the areas where their host species live.
Humans are not the natural reservoir for any of these viruses. Humans are infected when they come into contact with infected hosts. However, with some viruses, after the accidental transmission from the host, humans can transmit the virus to one another.
Human cases or outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers caused by these viruses occur sporadically and irregularly. The occurrence of outbreaks cannot be easily predicted.
With a few noteworthy exceptions, there is no cure or established drug treatment for VHFs.

In rare cases, other viral and bacterial infections can cause a hemorrhagic fever; scrub typhus is a good example.

What carries viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers?

Viruses associated with most VHFs are zoonotic. This means that these viruses naturally reside in an animal reservoir host or arthropod vector. They are totally dependent on their hosts for replication and overall survival. For the most part, rodents and arthropods are the main reservoirs for viruses causing VHFs. The multimammate rat, cotton rat, deer mouse, house mouse, and other field rodents are examples of reservoir hosts. Arthropod ticks and mosquitoes serve as vectors for some of the illnesses. However, the hosts of some viruses remain unknown -- Ebola and Marburg viruses are well-known examples.

Where are cases of viral hemorrhagic fever found?


Taken together, the viruses that cause VHFs are distributed over much of the globe. However, because each virus is associated with one or more particular host species, the virus and the disease it causes are usually seen only where the host species live(s). Some hosts, such as the rodent species carrying several of the New World arenaviruses, live in geographically restricted areas. Therefore, the risk of getting VHFs caused by these viruses is restricted to those areas. Other hosts range over continents, such as the rodents that carry viruses which cause various forms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America, or the different set of rodents that carry viruses which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia. A few hosts are distributed nearly worldwide, such as the common rat. It can carry Seoul virus, a cause of HFRS; therefore, humans can get HFRS anywhere where the common rat is found.

While people usually become infected only in areas where the host lives, occasionally people become infected by a host that has been exported from its native habitat. For example, the first outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany, and in Yugoslavia, occurred when laboratory workers handled imported monkeys infected with Marburg virus. Occasionally, a person becomes infected in an area where the virus occurs naturally and then travels elsewhere. If the virus is a type that can be transmitted further by person-to-person contact, the traveler could infect other people. For instance, in 1996, a medical professional treating patients with Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) in Gabon unknowingly became infected. When he later traveled to South Africa and was treated for Ebola HF in a hospital, the virus was transmitted to a nurse. She became ill and died. Because more and more people travel each year, outbreaks of these diseases are becoming an increasing threat in places where they rarely, if ever, have been seen before.

How are hemorrhagic fever viruses transmitted?

Viruses causing hemorrhagic fever are initially transmitted to humans when the activities of infected reservoir hosts or vectors and humans overlap. The viruses carried in rodent reservoirs are transmitted when humans have contact with urine, fecal matter, saliva, or other body excretions from infected rodents. The viruses associated with arthropod vectors are spread most often when the vector mosquito or tick bites a human, or when a human crushes a tick. However, some of these vectors may spread virus to animals, livestock, for example. Humans then become infected when they care for or slaughter the animals.

Some viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever can spread from one person to another, once an initial person has become infected. Ebola, Marburg, Lassa and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses are examples. This type of secondary transmission of the virus can occur directly, through close contact with infected people or their body fluids. It can also occur indirectly, through contact with objects contaminated with infected body fluids. For example, contaminated syringes and needles have played an important role in spreading infection in outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever.

(50% or less of non-copyrighted material)
More available at link below:
[link to www.cdc.gov]

Last Edited by We Who Watch on 10/04/2014 06:22 PM
7 Billion people on the planet!
That's a BIG number!
And I am one.
We Who Watch  (OP)

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10/04/2014 03:56 PM
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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
Have you checked South America? They have cases there, not ebola, but the other varieties not well known.
7 Billion people on the planet!
That's a BIG number!
And I am one.
We Who Watch  (OP)

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10/04/2014 06:17 PM
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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
Why do VHFs make good bioweapons?

Disseminate through aerosols

Low infectious dose

High morbidity and mortality

Cause fear and panic in the public

No effective vaccine

Available and can be produced in large quantity

Research on weaponization has been conducted

[link to www.google.com (secure)] (power point required)

Last Edited by We Who Watch on 10/04/2014 06:21 PM
7 Billion people on the planet!
That's a BIG number!
And I am one.
ElectDirect

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10/04/2014 06:27 PM
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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
What are viral hemorrhagic fevers?

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses. In general, the term "viral hemorrhagic fever" is used to describe a severe multisystem syndrome (multisystem in that multiple organ systems in the body are affected). Characteristically, the overall vascular system is damaged, and the body's ability to regulate itself is impaired. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage (bleeding); however, the bleeding is itself rarely life-threatening. While some types of hemorrhagic fever viruses can cause relatively mild illnesses, many of these viruses cause severe, life-threatening disease.

The Special Pathogens Branch (SPB) primarily works with hemorrhagic fever viruses that are classified as biosafety level four (BSL-4) pathogens. A list of these viruses appears in the SPB disease information index. The Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, also in the National Center for Infectious Diseases, works with the non-BSL-4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever.

How are hemorrhagic fever viruses grouped?

VHFs are caused by viruses of four distinct families: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. Each of these families share a number of features:

They are all RNA viruses, and all are covered, or enveloped, in a fatty (lipid) coating.
Their survival is dependent on an animal or insect host, called the natural reservoir.
The viruses are geographically restricted to the areas where their host species live.
Humans are not the natural reservoir for any of these viruses. Humans are infected when they come into contact with infected hosts. However, with some viruses, after the accidental transmission from the host, humans can transmit the virus to one another.
Human cases or outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers caused by these viruses occur sporadically and irregularly. The occurrence of outbreaks cannot be easily predicted.
With a few noteworthy exceptions, there is no cure or established drug treatment for VHFs.

In rare cases, other viral and bacterial infections can cause a hemorrhagic fever; scrub typhus is a good example.

What carries viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers?

Viruses associated with most VHFs are zoonotic. This means that these viruses naturally reside in an animal reservoir host or arthropod vector. They are totally dependent on their hosts for replication and overall survival. For the most part, rodents and arthropods are the main reservoirs for viruses causing VHFs. The multimammate rat, cotton rat, deer mouse, house mouse, and other field rodents are examples of reservoir hosts. Arthropod ticks and mosquitoes serve as vectors for some of the illnesses. However, the hosts of some viruses remain unknown -- Ebola and Marburg viruses are well-known examples.

Where are cases of viral hemorrhagic fever found?


Taken together, the viruses that cause VHFs are distributed over much of the globe. However, because each virus is associated with one or more particular host species, the virus and the disease it causes are usually seen only where the host species live(s). Some hosts, such as the rodent species carrying several of the New World arenaviruses, live in geographically restricted areas. Therefore, the risk of getting VHFs caused by these viruses is restricted to those areas. Other hosts range over continents, such as the rodents that carry viruses which cause various forms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America, or the different set of rodents that carry viruses which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia. A few hosts are distributed nearly worldwide, such as the common rat. It can carry Seoul virus, a cause of HFRS; therefore, humans can get HFRS anywhere where the common rat is found.

While people usually become infected only in areas where the host lives, occasionally people become infected by a host that has been exported from its native habitat. For example, the first outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany, and in Yugoslavia, occurred when laboratory workers handled imported monkeys infected with Marburg virus. Occasionally, a person becomes infected in an area where the virus occurs naturally and then travels elsewhere. If the virus is a type that can be transmitted further by person-to-person contact, the traveler could infect other people. For instance, in 1996, a medical professional treating patients with Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) in Gabon unknowingly became infected. When he later traveled to South Africa and was treated for Ebola HF in a hospital, the virus was transmitted to a nurse. She became ill and died. Because more and more people travel each year, outbreaks of these diseases are becoming an increasing threat in places where they rarely, if ever, have been seen before.

How are hemorrhagic fever viruses transmitted?

Viruses causing hemorrhagic fever are initially transmitted to humans when the activities of infected reservoir hosts or vectors and humans overlap. The viruses carried in rodent reservoirs are transmitted when humans have contact with urine, fecal matter, saliva, or other body excretions from infected rodents. The viruses associated with arthropod vectors are spread most often when the vector mosquito or tick bites a human, or when a human crushes a tick. However, some of these vectors may spread virus to animals, livestock, for example. Humans then become infected when they care for or slaughter the animals.

Some viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever can spread from one person to another, once an initial person has become infected. Ebola, Marburg, Lassa and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses are examples. This type of secondary transmission of the virus can occur directly, through close contact with infected people or their body fluids. It can also occur indirectly, through contact with objects contaminated with infected body fluids. For example, contaminated syringes and needles have played an important role in spreading infection in outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and Lassa fever.

(50% or less of non-copyrighted material)
More available at link below:
[link to www.cdc.gov]
 Quoting: We Who Watch



Ninja Futurista
Wubbo Ockels

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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
Thread: Ebolavirus anagrams to "Blue savior"


.
R.I.P. for the real Wubbo Ockels. He was a true icon of my country, and a great front-fighter for sustainable energie/technology and humanism.

"Yes, we have hurdles, we have distractions, we have disasters, personally and world-wide, and we do have to work it all out ourselves. BUT, there is a most amazing experience awaiting us on the other end of the finish-line.
The idea being, once we can handle it all down here, then we can live and explore eternally, responsibly, because we know what not to do, and not be resentful about being responsible, so we don't start a polarity domino effect in the other realms of existence."

"The Fraction" of Life can be increased in value not so much by increasing your Numerator as by lessening your Denominator. Nay, unless my Algebra deceive me, Unity itself divided by Zero will give Infinity."

Thread: LADIES & GENTLEMEN: I PRESENT to YOU OUR NEW SUN !!
Anonymous Coward
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10/04/2014 07:08 PM
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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
search "fiebre hemorrágica argentina".
It's caused by touching mouse shit or pee.
Starknight

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10/04/2014 09:28 PM
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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
search "fiebre hemorrágica argentina".
It's caused by touching mouse shit or pee.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 50210501


Gross. Why would you do that?
1 John 13._ 1Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God; because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 2By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God, 3and every spirit that does not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God.

@Starknight921
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10/04/2014 09:51 PM
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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
From a 1979 Near Death Experience (NED vision) of Sarah Hoffman:

"I knew that the diseases, and there were several different kinds, but at first primarily these two, came from small containers that had been brought into the United States. These containers were like quart jars and I was impressed that the people carrying them would just drop them on the ground in large crowds of people and the people would become infected without realizing it."

[link to visionsandprophecies.blogspot.ca]

The earliest posting of this vision I could find was here on GLP in 2004.
Anonymous Coward
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10/04/2014 10:08 PM
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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
search "fiebre hemorrágica argentina".
It's caused by touching mouse shit or pee.
 Quoting: Anonymous Coward 50210501


Gross. Why would you do that?
 Quoting: Starknight


Seriously? You win the award for the stupidest question of the day.

I guess it hasn't occurred to you that mice come out in the middle of the night looking for food, and in the process piss and crap on things. Then in the morning, someone may touch something with dried piss or touch a tiny piece of a black speck they didn't realize is mice poop. Duh.
We Who Watch  (OP)

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Re: Ebola just tip of the iceburg: Hemorrhagic viral fevers in South America (weaponized?)
I guess the point that interests me is that these viruses do not have to cross an ocean; they just have to travel north through Mexico to our southern border.
7 Billion people on the planet!
That's a BIG number!
And I am one.





GLP